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 Critical Thinking Chapter 3- Basic logical Concepts

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Emyrukenza Kaneshiro

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PostSubject: Critical Thinking Chapter 3- Basic logical Concepts   Wed Dec 31, 2008 7:58 pm

An argument can be deductive or inductive in nature. By being able to differentiate this, you will acquire one crucial skill of logic - which is being able to identify the strength of an argument, or identifying whether an argument is refutable or not. Cool, huh?

Deductive and inductive arguments

There is a significant difference between a deduction and an induction. Deduction is an argument derived from valid facts and figures to produce an irrefutable and inescapable logic (certainty) whereas an induction tries to show that their argument is likely, plausible or probable.

Example of a deduction:

Premise I – Human will eventually die

Premise II – Johan is a human

Conclusion – Certainly, Johan will eventually die

Example of a deduction:

Premise I – Most German cars are high in maintenance cost

Premise II – Mercedes is a German car

Conclusion – Most probably, Mercedes are high in maintenance cost

Deduction and induction indicators

On the examples above, deduction and induction indicators are shown in bold. Some other examples of them are:

Deduction indicators – Certainly, surely, definitely, absolutely, it logically follows that, it entails that, etc.

Induction indicators – Probably, likely, it is plausible to suppose that, it is reasonable to assume that, chances are that, etc.

By ilham Suardi
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